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A review of seismic mitigation measures used along the coast of Northern South America, from north Brazil up to Colombia

This review, written by Green Heritage Fund Suriname, includes an analysis of different mitigation measures used during seismic surveys in the Northern part of South America (here referred to as the MaMa CoCo SEA region, which is short for Marine Mammal Conservation Corridor for Northern South America), which covers an area from North Brazil (west of the Amazon Estuary) up to Colombia and involving eight countries (Brazil, France (French Guiana), Suriname, Guyana, Venezuela, Colombia, Aruba, Curacao, Trinidad and Tobago). Mitigation measures used within the (wider) region and those used internationally (New Zealand, Australia, UK, Gulf of Mexico) are also included for comparison.

It highlights the following topics that are generally part of seismic mitigation guidelines, e.g. exclusion or mitigation zone (EZ), pre-watch period (PW), soft start (SS), gun-tests, line change, mitigation gun (MG), shutdowns (SD)/power down (PD) or Pause, Species of Concern (SoC) and the role of Marine Mammal Observers.

This review has been co-financed by Green Heritage Fund Suriname and WWF.